History of the city of Vinnitsa and its name.

The most probable basis of the name is the Old Slavic wolf – the bride’s dowry. The emergence of this name is explained by the fact that Vinnytsia and the surrounding land were in the XIV century. captured by Prince Olgerd of Lithuania and donated by his nephews. However, “wine” is a purely legal term in marriage law that applied only to women; in addition, the nephews remained vassals of the Grand Duke and entered Podolsk land with his “liberation”, not as a result of the so-called gift.

Since the initial name of the city is Vnichia (according to the List of cities of Russians) or Vnitsa (according to the annals of Russo-Lithuanian), which coincides with the name of the great tributary of God (Southern Bug), in the inter-rivers of which the steady development of the territory of Vinnytsia (with archeology and archeology began). XIII century.), This name should be considered a hydronym of the agrarian-symbolic (family-sacral) content. The one-word words, besides them, are first and foremost the Old Slavic words he – brother, relative, associate, hen – river, tributary, vncha – holiday of harvest, vndy – birthmarks (and fishing hooks as a homonym), v – branch, genus (as the homonym is also the pronoun “we”).

An excerpt of the “West Russian or Belarusian Chronicle” About Podolskaya Zemlya “lists the variant of the name” Benitsa “. The name of the city had many different variants of transliteration. But on January 27, 2010, the Cabinet of Ministers Resolution N 55 defined the only variant of writing “Vinnytsia”.

Ancient Vinnytsia

The inhabited territories were in ancient times. From the middle of the X century, the tribes of streets and Tivertses, who were part of Kievan Rus, settled here. Subsequently, the region went to the Galicia-Volyn principality. The Golden Horde reigned here for over a hundred years. Against the background of the internal Horde feuds, the Bratslavschyna (the Brasilia Arabian authors ad-Dimashka and al-Idrissi, Slavia or Braslavia, the Florentine Chronicle M. Villani) first separated from the Horde due to the Hungarian-Bratslav.
By this time (no later than 1355) in the cities that were “Russian cities” of the regional group “on the Pole”, the Ottoman administrative structure was finally established. It was with these atamans that the rulers of Russo-Lithuanian descent had to negotiate after the victory in 1362 of the Lithuanian prince Olgerd’s army over the Tatars, their accomplice Dmitry, when Podillya (Podolia, as they began to call the region with the cities around the Big Dol road from Cherkasy to Kamyanets) ) came under the authority of the Lithuanian principality. The nephews of Prince Olgerd – Yuri, Alexander, Fedir and Konstantin Koriyatovich, began to build fortresses in Podolsk cities as state residences, as well as to establish new fortress cities. In the historiography of XIX-XX centuries. it was thought that Vinnytsia might have been among them, however, new archaeological and documentary information refutes this.
Vinnytsia documents are not mentioned in the documents of 1363: the date on the principle of “not later” is as probable a hypothesis concerning the battle on the eve (1362), as well as the foundation of the Ottoman Vinnytsia at the conflagration of the Russian city – not later than 1355 (concerning the campaign of 1354). ). The conditional commencement of the Chronicle of Vinnytsia from 1363 is connected with the efforts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to assert its dominion in the Podillya, to strengthen the region’s defense capability. The cities existed the day before: the ancient ‘archaeological’ Vinnytsia within the old city territory – for 150 years before the Lithuanian expansion, the continuous Vinnytsia under the control of the Ataman – about a decade before the conquest of Podillya by Lithuania. In the sense of selecting a criterion for organizing a city for the presence of its administrative and self-governing functions, the date “no later than 1355” is likely.

The indirect testimonials of the first-hand sources about the princely patronage of the Vinnytsia territorial community, which was “primarily a land community” (V.Otamanovsky), are interesting. Among the written documents of the XIV century. for Vinnitsa the most interesting are: A list of cities of the Russians, compiled around the middle, edited at the end of the century, which recorded the territorial achievements of Russia, including the XI-XIII centuries; a letter to Grynko Sokiletsky from Fyodor Koriyatovych in 1391,which mentions “Princess Vinnytsia” (which in itself suggests Dolitsky’s feudal affiliation of Vinnytsia; a diploma discovered in the National Archives of the Republic of Belarus in 2001); a message on the story of Podillia from the Russo-Lithuanian chronicles of the planting of Prince Vytautas in Bratslav, Sokilets and Vinnytsia (events of 1393).

Vinnytsia at the turn of XIX-XX centuries
The construction of the Kyiv-Baltic Railway in 1871 and the opening of the Kozyatyn-Zdolbuniv Railway line contributed to Vinnytsia’s strong economic growth. Vinnytsia has become the center of a region where the sugar industry has grown rapidly, thanks largely to German investments. Over the last 40 years of the XIX century Vinnitsa has grown economically almost three and a half times. The talented architect Grigory Artynov.
With the beginning of the World War 1914, the city became the administrative center of Podilskyi province, due to the frontal location of Kamianets. tinov builds the center of the city, including schools, theater, hotel, water tower.

Vinnytsia was the capital of Ukraine. On February 2, 1919, the UNR Directory moved to Vinnytsia, due to the difficult political situation. The directory was the highest authority at the time, so for the whole month Vinnytsia became the capital of Ukraine.

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